Stephen William Hawking was born on January 8, 1942 in Oxford England. He was born under his father Dr. Franks Hawking (a research Biologist) and Mother Isobel Hawking. He has two younger sisters Philippa and Mary Hawking and an adopted brother named Edward.
In 1950, Hawking’s family moved from London ( it was two dangerous during world war II) to High gate, North London. In 1950 Stephen's father moved to the Institute for Medical Research in Mill Hill. The family moved to St Albans so that the journey to Mill Hill was easier. Stephen attended St Albans High School for Girls (which took boys up to the age of 10). When he was older he attended St Albans school but his father wanted him to take the scholarship examination to go to Westminster public school. However Stephen was ill at the time of the examinations and remained at St Albans school which he had attended from the age of 11."I got an education there that was as good as, if not better than, that I would have had at Westminster. I have never found that my lack of social graces has been a hindrance" Writes Hawking
Hawking wanted to specialize in mathematics in his last couple of years at school where his mathematics teacher had inspired him to study the subject. However Hawking's father was strongly against the idea and Hawking was persuaded to make chemistry his main school subject. Part of his father's reasoning was that he wanted Hawking to go to University College, Oxford, the College he himself had attended, and that College had no mathematics fellow.
"The prevailing attitude at Oxford at that time was very anti-work. You were supposed to be brilliant without effort, or accept your limitations and get a fourth-class degree. To work hard to get a better class of degree was regarded as the mark of a grey man - the worst epithet in the Oxford vocabulary. "- Stephen Hawking
From Oxford, Hawking moved to Cambridge to take up research in general relativity and cosmology a difficult area for someone with only a little mathematical background. Hawking had noticed that he was becoming rather clumsy during his last year at Oxford and, when he returned home for Christmas 1962 at the end of his first term at Cambridge, his mother persuaded him to see a doctor.
In early 1963 he spent two weeks having tests in hospital and motor neron disease (Lou Gehrig's disease) was diagnosed. His condition deteriorated quickly and the doctors predicted that he would not live long enough to complete his doctorate. However Hawking writes:-
... although there was a cloud hanging over my future, I found to my surprise that I was enjoying life in the present more than I had before. I began to make progress with my research...
Dr. Hawking is an Author, Theoretical phyysicist, and since 1979 has been Lucasian professor of Mathematics at Cambridge. Stephen Hawking has worked on the basic laws that govern the universe. In his works Hawking's and Roger Penrose (English mathematical Physicist and Professor of Mathematics and the Mathematical Institute (University of Oxford)) showed that Einstein's general Theory of Relativity implies space and time would have a beginning in the Big Bang Theory (is the scientific theory that concerns the early development and shape of the universe. The central idea is that the theory of general relativity can be combined with the observations on the largest scales of galaxies receding from each other to extrapolate the conditions of the universe back or forward in time.) And end in Black holes (an area in space with such a strong graitational pull that no matter or energy can escape from it)
One eminence of such unification that hawking discovered was that Black holes should not be Completely black, But should emit a sort of radiation and eventually dissipate/ evaporate and disappear. Another conjecture is that the universe has no edge or boundary or limit, imaginary time. This would imply that the way the universe began was completley determined by the laws of science.
"I think my most important discovery is the fundamental relation between gravity and thermodynamics (the study of how heat moves through matter) which gives a black hole a temperature and causes it to evaporate slowly.- Stephen Hawking
What is a Theoretical Physicist?
They attempt to understand the world by making a model of reality, used for rationalizing, explaining, predicting physical phenomena through a "physical theory". There are three types of theories in physics; mainstream theories, proposed theories and fringe theories.
Some physical theories are backed by observation, whereas others are not. A physical theory is a model of physical events and cannot be proved from basic axioms. A physical theory is different from a mathematical theorem. Physical theories model reality and are a statement of what has been observed, and provide predictions of new observations.
Physical theories can become accepted if they are able to make correct predictions and avoid incorrect ones. Physical theories which are simpler tend to be accepted over theories which are complex. Physical theories are more likely to be accepted if they connect a wide range of phenomena. The process of testing a physical theory is part of the Scientific Theory.
Awards won :
Dirac Medal of the Institute of Physics for outstanding contribution to theoretical, mathematical and computational physics.
The Hughes Medal is awarded by the Royal Society of London "in recognition of an original discovery in the physical sciences, particularly electricity and magnetism or their applications". Named after David E. Hughes, the medal is awarded with a $1000 reward.
The Copley Medal is an award given by the Royal Society of London for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science, and alternates between the physical sciences and the biological sciences". Awarded every year, the medal is the...
Awards section : http://www.freebase.com/
Images from awards section http://www.freebase.com/ except Einsteins Photo.
Einstines Photo: http://www.bizsetup.wordpress.com/
Defenition of Theoretical physicist: http://www.knowledgerush.com/
First paragraph under " What he studied, what he was, degrees and awards he won : http://www.essortment.com/stephen-hawking-biography-20642.html
Defenition of Big Bang Theory : http://www.wordiq.comdefenition/Big_bang
Definition of Black Hole http://space.about.com/od/blackholes/a/Information-About-Black-Holes.htm
Second Paragraph under " What he studied..." http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/whos_who_level2/hawking.html
Background Information : http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/9011129/Stephen-Hawking-biography-by-Kitty-Ferguson-review.html / former knowledge .